Mr. Marzo's High School English Classroom Web Site Cerritos High School CHS
Modeled after Shakespeare’s Old Globe in London, the Old Globe Theatre was built in 1935 to present abridged versions of Shakespeare’s plays as part of the California Pacific International Exposition. At the conclusion of the exposition in 1937, a non-profit production corporation, the San Diego Community Theatre, leased the theatre and adjacent building from the City of San Diego (an arrangement that continues today) and renovated the theatre for ongoing use.
For more information please visit The Old Globe web site http://www.theoldglobe.org/yourvisit/index.aspx ,
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or call at (619) 23-GLOBE.
HISTORY & SETTING:
Italy during the Renaissance was composed of rivaling city-states governed predominantly by signori as autocratic oligarchies. This period was that of Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and great patrons of the arts such as the de' Medici & Borgia families.
The play Romeo and Juliet takes place, most generally, in the town of Verona located in the Republic of Venice, Italy. Verona was built along the banks of the “Adige” river sometime in the 6th century BC. The town had various rulers in its first 1200 years.
In 1314 Dante Alighieri, (later to become a famous Italian writer) was banished from his native town of Florence, much like Shakespeare's Romeo was exiled from Verona. As Dante wandered from city to city in Italy, he finally made his way to Verona where he finished his Literary Masterpiece The Divine Comedy, the first part of which is Inferno. The poem reflects the political and social turmoil that plagued the region at the time. The story of Romeo and Juliet could have easily been written by Dante himself as some literary scholars find Romeo and Juliet to be a dark comedy instead of a tragedy.
Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" may have also been set in the city of Verona. The story of Romeo and Juliet transpires over the course of four short days.
The setting is a representative place, meaning that the stage represents an actual place. All of the scenes occur in Verona, except Act V, scene 1, which takes place in the city of Mantua. Verona is the home of the Capulet and Montague families.
A majority of the action in the play takes place out-of-doors in Verona, from the fruitful Capulet orchard where Romeo and Juliet profess their love, to the bleak Capulet tomb where the lovers take their lives. The vision of the world that is suggested by the setting is social, in spite of the political connotations that arise when the lovers are told that they are to hate each other because of their names. The action neither befell a war between states, nor is it an abstraction. Much of the action of the play is centered on the civil disorder that occurs between the Capulet and Montague families.
Act I Reading Guide Act I Guide (pdf)
Act I Guide (doc)
Quizzes: Act I Quote Quiz
Shakespeare's Biography Quiz
Reading GuideAct II Guide (pdf)
Act II Guide(doc)
Quizzes Act II Quote Quiz
Act II Literary Term Crossword
Reading Guide Act III Guide (pdf)
Act III Guide(doc)
Quizzes Act III Quote Quiz
Top Act IV
Reading Guide Act IV Guide (pdf)
Act IV Guide(doc)
Quizzes Act IV Quote Quiz
Top Act V
Reading Guide Act V Guide (pdf)
Act V Guide(doc)
Quizzes Act V Summary
Act V Quote Quiz
Romeo and Juliet Review Sheet
Romeo and Juliet Paper:
Compare-contrast character analysis paper -- This is pdf. If you want MS word, click here.
Taxonomy of Love Handout
Ultimate Shakespeare -- This site has a lot of useful information.
Shakespeare Online -- Check out the FAQ section. Also, check out the plot synopsis of Rome and Juliet.
Shakespeare Resource Center
Mercutio starts off by teasing Romeo about his unrequited love for Rosalind, and what starts off as fun suddenly turns DARK in the Queen Mab Speech. According to Mercutio, Queen Mab is a tiny fairy who spins out dreams in the heads of mortal beings. She is a fickle dream weaver. As often as she blesses sleepers with pleasant dreams, she can also plague them with dark nightmares as Mercutio notes.
ACT II, PROLOGUE
The Chorus (which, in Shakespeare's day, was only one person) appears as in Act I to comment on the action. Again, Shakespeare uses a sonnet.
Romeo's love for Rosaline is dead, we're told. He now loves Juliet. Romeo and Juliet don't really know each other yet, but they have both been "bewitched by the charm of looks."
At the end of the sonnet, we're told that neither fate, nor Providence, but passion lends the lovers power to meet. How can good come from "sinful" passion? The wise Friar Lawrence will explain this later in the act.
ACT II, SCENE I
The party's over and Romeo's out on the street. He's dazed after meeting Juliet, and reluctant to go home. When he hears Benvolio and Mercutio coming, he ducks out of sight.
Benvolio and Mercutio, still in a party mood, are looking for their friend. Benvolio calls for Romeo by name, but Mercutio is more inventive. He calls, "Romeo! Humors! Madman! Passion! Lover!" and says that if Romeo will only mutter lovers' cliches he'll know it's him.
Mercutio assumes that Romeo is still pining away for Rosaline. In fact, Mercutio says the best he can do is to conjure up the ghost of the old Romeo.
Benvolio finally decides they should just
Go then, for 'tis in vain To seek him here that means not to be found. (II, i, 41-42)
ACT II, SCENE II
Romeo's hiding in an orchard but he's heard Mercutio's sarcastic remarks. "He jests at scars that never felt a wound!" Romeo complains.
But then Romeo realizes where he is, and the whole scene turns around. By coincidence he's in the Capulets' orchard, and Juliet-who's also too excited to sleep-has come to her window.
Romeo can't believe his good luck. Still hidden in the orchard, he gazes up at the girl the same way he would gaze at the heavens. He turns his wonder and joy into poetry. Juliet again represents light to him-she is the sun, and her eyes are brighter than two stars. But although his love poetry about Juliet is much more creative and mature than his verses about Rosaline, Romeo still keeps his distance. Instead of speaking to her, he muses,
See how she leans her cheek upon her hand! O, that I were a glove upon that hand That I might touch that cheek. (II, ii, 23-25) Then, to Romeo's delight, Juliet begins to speak. This is the second time that someone who's been talking to him or herself has been overheard. And, for the second time, it changes the course of the play.
The lovestruck Juliet is talking to herself about Romeo. But instead of comparing him to stars and gods (as Romeo compared her) she gets down to the practical matter of wondering why he has to be a Montague. "Tis but thy name that's my enemy," she says. What do names matter anyway? "That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet." She ends by proclaiming
Romeo, doff thy name; And for that name, which is no part of thee Take all myself. (II, ii, 47-49)
Juliet's offer is too much for Romeo to ignore. He rushes out of hiding, saying:
I take thee at thy word! Call me but love, and I'll be new baptized; Henceforth I never will be Romeo. (II, ii, 49-51)
Juliet is shocked that there's a man in the orchard-wouldn't you be? She's even more shocked that he's been eavesdropping. She doesn't recognize him until he calls her "dear saint".
Their conversation immediately points up the differences in their personalities. Juliet asks short, practical questions, and Romeo gives idealistic, flowery replies.
But their temperamental differences are complementary. They are both kind, noble people, and they're madly in love.
Juliet is embarrassed that Romeo overheard her frank statement of love. She offers to be shier, more coquettish, if he'd like; but she'd rather not, she loves him too much to play silly games. She asks him if he loves her, and he starts to swear that he does; but she stops him and asks him not to swear. Before Romeo can come up with a good answer to this, Juliet suddenly becomes afraid.
Although I joy in thee, I have no joy in this contract tonight. It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden; Too like the lightning, which does cease to be Ere one can say it lightens. (II, ii, 116-20)
How can we blame the lovers for the tragedy, when Juliet herself wishes their love were less sudden, more conventional? Every step of the way, we see that Romeo and Juliet try their best to do the right and honorable thing.
Here our sympathy lies with the lovers as they do their best to fight fate. But at the same time, Juliet's image of lightning is the first of several times that their passion will be described as a blinding light that will die instantly.
Juliet tries to say goodnight then, but Romeo asks her to stay. He wants more than the vow of love she spoke to herself; he wants her to tell him that she loves him.
True to her word, Juliet isn't shy; she declares her love more passionately than she did before. She tells him,
My passion is as boundless as the sea My love as deep; The more I give to thee, The more I have, for both are infinite. (II, ii, 133-35)
The Nurse calls to Juliet from inside, and the girl hurries in, promising to return. When she does return, she is again the practical one. She comes straight to the point: if his love is honorable and his purpose marriage, he should send word to her of when and where they'll be married, "and all my fortunes at thy foot I'll lay / and follow thee my lord throughout the earth." But if he doesn't mean well, he should tell her right away and leave her to her grief. Romeo is as eager as she is to be married, and he promises he'll have it arranged by nine o'clock that morning.
Juliet complains that "Tis twenty year till then." The lovers have entered into their own reality. In truth, time speeds by. All of this has happened in one day, and by the end of the next day, much will have changed. Be sure to watch the difference between actual lengths of time, and how time feels to the lovers.
Then, like lovers of any time, they can't stand to say good night. Finally they part, but only to make plans to consummate their love.
ACT II, SCENE III
From the passion of the night, we go to the calm of early morning. As the sun rises, we find Friar Lawrence is in his cell (room) preparing to go out and gather "baleful weeds and precious-juiced flowers." He's a man who knows herbs and medicines; by his descriptions of the dawn and the dew, he's a man who loves nature. But his view of it is realistic: he knows that the same flower can be used for medicine or poison. After this scene, it will seem natural that the Friar will try to use his knowledge of medicines and potions to help the lovers.
Some readers feel that in this speech, Friar Lawrence states the themes of the play. He is aware of paradoxes:
The earth that's nature's mother is her tomb. What is her burying grave, that is her womb (II, iii, 9-10)
He also understands that everything-including people-have the potential for good or for evil:
For naught so vile that on the earth doth live But to the earth some special good doth give; Nor ought so good but, strained from that fair use, Revolts from true birth, stumbling on abuse. Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied, And vice sometime by action dignified. (II, iii, 17-22)
How does this apply to the lovers? Are we to think that love, a virtue, can become a sin? Or passion, a sin, can be used for good? Keep these questions in mind through the next few scenes.
Before the friar can leave his cell, Romeo calls a greeting. The friar is delighted to see him. He calls Romeo "young son", and means it in a deeper sense than the usual priest-parishioner relationship. The two are very close. Friar Lawrence knows more about Romeo than do his parents. When Romeo admits that he's been up all night, the friar sighs, "God pardon sin! Wast thou with Rosaline?"
But Romeo says he has only good news for the friar. He tells him he's forgotten Rosaline, and has been "feasting with mine enemy." When the friar asks him not to speak in riddles, Romeo comes to the point-he loves Juliet and wants the friar to marry them that very day. The friar's instant reaction is an emphatic no.
Holy Saint Francis! What a change is here! Is Rosaline, that thou didst love so dear, So soon forsaken? Young men's love then lies Not truly in their hearts, but in their eyes. (II, iii, 65-68)
By the end of the scene, Friar Lawrence hasn't yet promised to marry them, but he admits that Romeo and Juliet's love could work to bury their families' hatred. Romeo pleads with him to hurriedly help them make plans but Friar Lawrence answers:
Wisely and slow. They stumble that run fast. (II, iii, 94) This is another warning we know will go unheeded.
ACT II, SCENE IV
From the quiet church, we go back to the streets. Mercutio and Benvolio are out again, and still looking for Romeo. Benvolio tells Mercutio two choice bits of information: that Romeo didn't come home at all that night, and that Tybalt has sent Romeo a letter challenging him to a duel. Benvolio says he's sure that Romeo will accept Tybalt's challenge. Mercutio bets he won't-Romeo's as good as dead already, "run through the ear with a love song." Tybalt is an expert swordsman, he adds, and Romeo's in no state to take him on.
This is funny to us, because we know that Romeo doesn't care about Rosaline anymore. But we also feel the danger, because we know that Tybalt's threat is nothing to take lightly.
Have you ever had two good friends who had nothing, besides you, in common? Benvolio and Mercutio are like that. They're an odd couple when Romeo isn't around.
Mercutio uses his own witty descriptions of Tybalt to launch into more punning and wordplay. Unlike Romeo, Benvolio is no match for Mercutio's wit; in fact, he doesn't even try to be. Mercutio's in fine form; he makes fun of everything that comes to mind. He's obviously well-educated, and knows French. He uses this to make fun of people who, putting on airs, throw around French phrases. This would be funny to people in Shakespeare's audience, because English people were as likely to show their snobbishness by speaking French as Italian people (like Mercutio) were.
Romeo enters in the middle of one of Mercutio's tirades. Pretending not to notice him, Mercutio lists many of history's great lovers, and claims that they all seem like prostitutes next to Rosaline. But Romeo's not only his old self again, he's his new self as well, and more than Mercutio's match at wordgames. Mercutio is so surprised at the change in Romeo, that at one point he cries, "Come between us, good Benvolio, my wits faints!" Again in the middle of a joke comes a grim foreshadowing of what will come.
Mercutio is thrilled to have his old friend back. He exclaims Why, is this not better than groaning for love?
Now art thou sociable, now art thou Romeo. (II, iv, 92-94)
In this scene, we see how much the two friends care about each other. This friendship will be important to the action of the play.
The young men soon turn from making fun of each other to making fun of others. Romeo spies an old servant-woman all dressed up and trying to act ladylike. She's wearing a very noticeable hat, too, for as soon as Romeo sees her, he shouts, "A sail! A sail!" He doesn't recognize her as Juliet's nurse, and before he does, Mercutio takes over.
The Nurse has some wit and an earthy humor, but she's no match for Mercutio's intelligence. The more she tries to act upper-class the worse it gets. Mercutio pretends to go along with her, then cracks racy jokes at her expense. The final insult is that Peter, the Nurse's servant, thinks it's funny, too.
She finally says she's looking for Romeo. Romeo sends Mercutio and Benvolio away, promising to join them for supper. The Nurse is still furious with Mercutio, but Romeo assures her that he's only, "a gentleman, nurse, who loves to hear himself talk."
Romeo finally calms the Nurse, but she remains defensive and protective of Juliet. She warns Romeo that he'd better not lead her into a "fool's paradise."
As soon as Romeo begins to speak, the Nurse is won over. Once he tells her the plan, the Nurse is her old self. After a good chat, Romeo and the Nurse go their separate ways.
ACT II, SCENE V
While the Nurse is meeting with Romeo, Juliet waits at home. She's very impatient-and who wouldn't be? Haven't you had an evening that was so wonderful that the next morning, you wondered if the whole thing was a dream? This is how Juliet feels. She won't know until the Nurse returns if last night was too good to be true-or if this is her wedding day.
Finally the Nurse returns. She has the news Juliet's been waiting for, but she isn't telling. Instead, she teases Juliet, acting sad, complaining of her aching bones and shortage of breath. The more Juliet pleads, the more the Nurse teases her.
We get the feeling that the Nurse has done this to Juliet before. It might have been a funny game when Juliet was little, but now that she needs important information, the Nurse's prattle seems thoughtless and cruel.
We begin to notice that the whole play revolves around messages, and that the two lovers depend on the message-bearers. If Juliet has this much trouble with the Nurse this early, can we be sure that later messages will reach their destinations?
Yet the Nurse really does care for Juliet. She finally tells her the happy news: Juliet should go to the friar's cell, for "there stays a husband to make you a wife." The Nurse will keep the lovers' secret and get the rope-ladder (which Romeo will climb to Juliet's balcony) so the couple can spend their wedding night together.
ACT II, SCENE VI
A little while later, Friar Lawrence and Romeo are waiting in the Friar's cell. Romeo says something that sounds odd, coming from a bridegroom:
Do thou but close our hands with holy words, Then love-devouring death do what he dare It is enough I may but call her mine. (II, vi, 6-8) He's still responding, perhaps subconsciously, to his earlier fear that he's about to die. Does he really mean that if they're married, he's won, even over death? If those are his terms for victory, have the lovers "won" at the end of the play?
The Friar, doing his religious duty, restates the church's warning about their passion:
These violent delights have violent ends And in their triumph die, like fire and powder, Which, as they kiss, consume. (II, vi, 9-11)
Again, the lovers' passion is compared to a brilliant light that goes out as soon as it's lit. But when Juliet enters, the Friar can't help but admire her, almost as much as Romeo does. Romeo and Juliet are so thrilled just to be together that getting married almost seems an added attraction. But the Friar nonetheless recognizes the depth of their passion. He decides he'd better get them married before he leaves them alone, so that their physical relationship will be holy.
ACT III, SCENE I
Act III opens with Benvolio and Mercutio out on the street again, but their tone has changed. Benvolio begs Mercutio, "let's retire... For now, these hot days, is the mad blood stirring."
Mercutio blames Benvolio for being hot-headed and looking for a fight. The irony is that everything for which Mercutio blames Benvolio is actually true of Mercutio.
Their banter is still funny, but it has dangerous overtones. Mercutio says that if there were two hotheaded people out, soon there would be none, for they'd kill each other. Benvolio says that the life expectancy of someone in Mercutio's fighting mood is an hour and a quarter. As insults between friends, these lines are funny. Unfortunately, they're going to come true.
As if on cue, Tybalt enters, looking for Romeo. Mercutio insults him and goads him to fight; the only reason that Tybalt won't fight Mercutio is that he's still obsessed with the "injury" that Romeo's done to his family.
Just then, Romeo comes in, fresh from his wedding. Tybalt is thrilled; but try as he might, Tybalt can't get Romeo to fight. Romeo doesn't pay any attention to his insults; instead he calls him "cousin," and says he holds the name Capulet as dear as his own. The feud might have ended right there, and the lovers could have lived happily ever after. But Mercutio is there, and he's appalled at Romeo's actions. He calls "O, calm, dishonorable, vile submission!" and takes up Tybalt's challenge himself.
We, like Romeo, want to part the two hot-tempered fighters. But just as Romeo runs between them, Tybalt stabs Mercutio, then runs off. This is the turning point of the play: the comedy has turned irrevocably to tragedy.
Mercutio's friends don't realize how badly he's hurt. True to form, Mercutio's making puns. But then he asks Romeo, "Why the devil came you between us? I was hurt under your arm." All that Romeo can answer is, "I thought all for the best."
Romeo's good intentions aren't enough; Mercutio dies, cursing the Montagues and Capulets. Now Romeo has a reason to fight the Capulets. One of his best friends is dead, and he feels that it's his fault. All of us know, don't we, how bad we feel when we inadvertently hurt one of our best friends. Can you imagine how terrible you'd feel if your best friend accidentally died because of something you'd done?
Would the old Romeo have let this happen? Romeo doesn't know; he's overcome with guilt and grief. He wonders if his love for Juliet has made him effeminate, taken away his courage. By the time Tybalt returns, Romeo has forgotten his feelings of love, and has given in to hate. He yells, "fire-eyed fury be my conduct now!" and tells Tybalt that one of them must join Mercutio. It's a fight to the death, but the furious Romeo manages to kill the sword-skilled Tybalt.
Benvolio, as always thinking clearly, urges Romeo to flee, as fighting in the streets carries the death penalty. A crowd is forming. Only then, does Romeo realize the consequences of his rash action, crying, "O, I am fortune's fool!" before he's hurried away.
The Prince comes to the scene, and so do the Montagues and Capulets. Benvolio stays to give a fair, unbiased account of the fight. Lady Capulet is anguished over Tybalt's death; she claims Benvolio is lying and demands that Romeo be killed. Instead, the Prince banishes Romeo from Verona, "else when he is found, that hour is his last." The Prince is outraged that one of his relatives has been killed in the Capulet-Montague feud. He fines both families heavily. He's let them off too easily in the past, he says, and this fight proves that "Mercy but murders, pardoning those that kill."
ACT III, SCENE II
Juliet's in the Capulets' orchard. Completely unaware of what's happened, she's busy making plans for her wedding-night. Losing her virginity is a serious thing to Juliet, but she's more than ready to sleep with Romeo.
Again, we see that Romeo represents light to her. He is her "day in night," and she fantasizes that when he dies, Romeo could be cut up into stars and put in the sky. Then everyone could be in love with night.
Here, we get a glimpse of a young girl growing up. She will soon be a matron herself, but as yet, she is "an impatient child that hath new robes / and may not wear them."
The Nurse arrives with news of the fight. As she did earlier that morning, she wrings her hands, and looks sad; again Juliet pleads for the news. This time, the Nurse garbles the message, leading Juliet to believe first that Romeo has been killed, then that Romeo has committed suicide; then that Romeo and Tybalt are both dead, and finally that Romeo has killed Tybalt.
Juliet is stunned. She can't believe Tybalt is dead, and she calls Romeo "a damned saint and an honorable villain." But when the Nurse cries, "Shame come to Romeo!" Juliet jumps to his defense. She knew of Tybalt's temper, and says "that villain cousin would have killed my husband." Her loyalty is no longer with her family, but with her husband. She cries that Romeo's banishment is worse than 10,000 slain Tybalts:
"Romeo is banished"- to speak that word Is father, mother, Tybalt, Romeo, Juliet, All slain, all dead. (III, ii, 123-24)
Juliet then says this means that she is married to the death; we know that this is truer than she realizes.
The Nurse finally tells Juliet the news she should have told her at the beginning: Romeo is hiding in Friar Lawrence's cell, and can come to her that night. Juliet gives the Nurse one of her rings to give to Romeo, and sends her off right away.
ACT III, SCENE III
If we were watching a movie, we might see a fade-out on Juliet crying "banished," and a fade-in on Romeo crying the same thing. He's in Friar Lawrence's cell, and the Friar has just told him of the Prince's judgment. The Friar is very relieved that Romeo isn't condemned to death, and he's confident that eventually things will work out.
But Romeo can see no future for himself: to be separated from Juliet is unthinkable to him. In another foreshadowing, he asks for poison or a knife with which to kill himself. Friar Lawrence tries to calm Romeo with philosophy and common sense, but Romeo cries, "Hang philosophy!" The Friar accuses Romeo of acting like a madman; Romeo accuses the Friar of not understanding the situation or his feelings.
But does that mean he shouldn't take any of Lawrence's advise? By the time there's a knocking at the door, Romeo even refuses to hide. He'd rather be killed.
Fortunately, the intruder is Juliet's Nurse. She tells the Friar that Juliet is acting as childishly as Romeo.
She orders Romeo to stand up and act like a man, then tells him Juliet's weeping, first calling for Tybalt, then for Romeo. Romeo's filled with guilt, thinking he's responsible for Juliet's suffering. He grabs his dagger to kill himself, but the Nurse pulls it away.
This threat finally provokes Friar Lawrence to action. Not only does he love Romeo dearly, but the Church sees suicide as a mortal sin. He commands Romeo to "hold thy desperate hand," and act like a man. "Thy tears are womanish," he accuses, "thy wild acts denote the unreasonable fury of a beast."
He tells Romeo to think of others beside himself, and to keep his mood in check. In yet another foreshadowing he asks:
Hast thou slain Tybalt? Will thou slay thyself? And slay thy lady that in thy life lives By doing damned hate upon thyself? (III, iii, 116-18) He also warns that Romeo's present mood is likely to cause a catastrophe that can be easily avoided. Knowing what we know, we want to add our support to these warnings.
The friar goes a little overboard in saying that "a pack of blessings light upon thy back," but he points out three reasons that Romeo should be grateful: 1) "Juliet is alive;" 2) "Tybalt would kill thee, but thou slewest Tybalt," and 3) "The law, threatened death, becomes thy friend and turns it to exile."
Friar Lawrence then lays out the plan of action: Romeo will spend the night with Juliet, sneak out of Verona before dawn and go to Mantua; then Friar Lawrence, after having their marriage recognized, will call him back.
The thought of seeing Juliet revives Romeo completely. Friar Lawrence and Romeo say loving goodbyes to one other; unknown to them, it's their final farewell.
ACT III, SCENE IV
A few hours later, we're back at the Capulets' house, where Lord and Lady Capulet are saying good night to Count Paris. Why are we back with them? What do they have to do with the lovers?
Paris has come to see Juliet, but her father explains that she's grief-stricken at Tybalt's death. Because Juliet's mourning, her parents haven't been able to ask her how she feels about Paris.
Paris is a thoughtful young man, and he understands completely. He sends his best regards to Juliet and starts to leave. We can't really help but like Paris; he obviously loves Juliet very much. He's a good man, he's just in the wrong place at the wrong time. Fate seems to be playing with him as much as it is with Romeo and Juliet.
As Paris is leaving, Lord Capulet is suddenly convinced that Juliet will obey his wishes in this matter. To him, Juliet and Paris' eventual marriage is certain, and he calls Paris "son;" He now decides to assuage Juliet's grief by setting their wedding for that very week. It's still Monday (and what a day-it's included marriage, death, and banishment!) so Wednesday is too soon-they'll be married on Thursday.
Capulet asks Paris if this is all right-since the family is mourning for Tybalt, it will be a small wedding. (This would be a sacrifice since someone of Paris' stature would expect to have a huge wedding celebration.) Paris loves Juliet so much that he agrees instantly. Suddenly, Paris is a very real threat to the lovers. Juliet's second wedding is only two days away.
ACT III, SCENE V
While Lord Capulet is making arrangements for Juliet's marriage to Paris, Juliet is secretly in her bedroom with Romeo. In contrast to the quick, businesslike scene with Paris, the two lovers revel in each other's presence as if life and time were theirs to command. They speak tenderly to each other, and their language is beautiful and mature. We can see that their love has never been deeper.
Romeo says it's near day and he has to leave for Mantua, but Juliet begs him to stay. Overcome with the joy of being with her, Romeo throws caution to the wind. Then Juliet realizes it really is near day, and he really is in danger, and she begs him to go quickly. It seems that even nature is working against them: light and day, which used to be their friend, is now their enemy:
Juliet. O, now be gone! More light and light it grows.
Romeo. More light and light-more dark and dark our woes. (III, v, 35-36)
In the prologue to Act II, time was their friend and helped them meet in secret. But now time, too, is keeping them apart. Juliet says
I must hear from thee every day in the hour For in a minute there are many days.
O, by this count I shall be much in years Ere I again behold my Romeo! (III, v, 44-47)
This also contrasts the lovers' sense of how time can stretch and seem longer, to the condensed time that is catching up with them and starting to crush them. The two days they've known each other have seemed long because so much has happened. But from now on, time is going to rush by, pushing them from one tragedy to another.
As Romeo finally drops to the ground from Juliet's window, she has a terrible feeling of foreboding: she thinks she sees Romeo, not on the ground, but "as one dead in the bottom of a tomb." Romeo says that his grief makes her look the same way to him.
As Romeo leaves, Juliet pleads to Fortune to send him back to her quickly.
The Nurse warns Juliet that her mother is coming, and Juliet's startled-it's well before dawn.
When Lady Capulet finds Juliet crying, she assumes Juliet's grief is for Tybalt. She tells her daughter that she's carrying it too far; tears can't bring Tybalt back. The real tragedy, she says, is that Tybalt's murderer is still alive. Lady Capulet's dearest wish is to send someone to Mantua to poison Romeo.
Through their whole conversation, Juliet talks in double meanings. To her mother it sounds like she mourns for Tybalt and hates Romeo; but we know she means just the opposite.
Does her talk, with hidden meaning, show her new maturity and her ability to hide her feelings? Or does she speak childishly and contribute to her own sense of loneliness? In either case, we feel strongly that the lovers are alone against the world.
Throughout the story, plot turnarounds have happened fairly quickly. Romeo turned quickly from loving Rosaline to loving Juliet; the couple's wedding soon turned into horror at the deaths of Mercutio and Tybalt. Now events and turnarounds start happening so fast that characters have to make instant decisions and think on their feet.
Lady Capulet says she has happy news for Juliet: she will marry Paris on Thursday. The mother seems genuinely happy for her daughter: Paris is gallant, young and noble-everything her own husband is not.
Was there ever a time when your parents worked hard on a surprise for you-but it was something you didn't want? Do you remember the anger and hurt on both sides? This is part of what's happening here with the Capulets-but the stakes are very high.
Juliet angrily refuses to marry Paris. Why should she marry someone who hasn't even wooed her? She swears by the saints she won't marry anyone, and if she does it will more likely be Romeo, whom her parents hate, than Paris. She ends with an emphatic "These are news indeed!", roughly equivalent to: "So what do you think about that!"
Lady Capulet knows better than to get caught between her daughter's temper and her husband's. She tells Juliet, "Here comes your father. Tell him so yourself / and see how he will take it at your hands."
It's obvious that Juliet doesn't want to marry Paris. But, instead of trying to find out why and counsel her, her parents angrily disown her.
When her father and her Nurse arrive at her bedroom, her father asks Lady Capulet if she's given Juliet the news. She answers with another bit of foreshadowing:
Ay sir; but she will none, she gives you thanks. I would the fool were married to her grave! (III, v, 139-41)
Lord Capulet explodes with anger that Juliet should cross him this way. Lady Capulet tries to bring him to his senses, telling him he's acting crazy; but in the end, only the Nurse stands up for Juliet.
Still nothing calms her father down. He yells that his whole life has been devoted to finding Juliet a worthy match; and now that he's found the best one possible, she refuses, whining like a fool. He lays down a final ultimatum: if she doesn't marry Paris on Thursday, she can
Hang, beg, starve, die in the streets, For, by my soul, I'll ne'er acknowledge thee. (III, v, 194-95)
Juliet turns to her mother one last time: "O sweet my mother, cast me not away! Delay this marriage for a month, a week." But it's no use. Her mother says, "Do as thou wilt, for I have done with thee."
Deserted by her parents, Juliet turns to her faithful Nurse for advice. The Nurse's advice is simple-forget Romeo and marry Paris. Paris is so fine, she says, that Romeo's a dishcloth in comparison.
Juliet is shocked. "Speakest thou from your heart?" she asks. Juliet has a serious problem. Legally, morally, and in her heart she is already married. Instead of offering a solution for her problem, the Nurse suggests that she ignore it, pretend it hadn't happened, and start again.
This is the worst betrayal of all. Juliet still hides her feelings, and tells the Nurse that she has comforted her "marvellous much." But she cuts the final cord to her childhood. Alone, Juliet says of her Nurse, "Thou and my bosom henceforth shall be twain."
The girl has only one hope left-Friar Lawrence. She resolves to go to church to confess displeasing her father. At this point, Juliet has taken responsibility for her own fate. "If all else fail, myself have power to die," she pledges.
ACT IV, SCENE I
We find ourselves at Lawrence's cell before Juliet's arrival. Of all people, Paris is with the friar, having come to make plans for his wedding. Friar Lawrence tries to stall him, but we soon realize that he isn't going to disclose the true situation, to Paris, or anyone else. Is this courageous or cowardly? We'll wonder about the friar's courage more in the coming scenes.
Juliet comes running in, and both she and Paris are surprised to see each other. It's plain to see that Paris really loves Juliet. He speaks tenderly to her, and is concerned that she's grieving. When he asks hopefully for a sign of love from her, we can't help but feel sorry for him.
Juliet again talks in circles giving Paris answers that could mean several things. Although she hides her feelings, her tension shows, She abruptly interrupts her talk with Paris to ask the Friar if he can see her right away, or if she should come back. The Friar sends Paris away so that he might counsel Juliet privately.
Once they're alone in the friar's cell, Juliet drops her defenses and cries:
O shut the door, and when thou hast done so, Come weep with me-past hope, past care, past help! (IV, i, 44-45)
Lawrence tells her he knows of her dilemma, but "It strains me past the compass of my wits."
Juliet begs his help. She says God joined her heart to Romeo's, and the Friar joined their hands in marriage. She'd rather kill herself, she declares, than marry someone other than Romeo.
The Friar has to think fast, and the plan he comes up with is a desperate one. They have to stop the marriage, and to do so, they must buy time. Juliet is ready to agree to anything: love and desperation have made her strong.
The Friar lays out his plan. Juliet should go home, ask forgiveness, and agree to marry Paris. The next night, before her wedding, she should make sure she's alone. Then she should drink a drug the Friar will give her. It will make her seem dead for forty-two hours. She'll be placed in the tomb, and he'll send a letter to Romeo. When she wakes up, Romeo will be there to take her to Mantua, where they can live as husband and wife. The Friar will work to have Romeo pardoned and their marriage recognized.
Thankfully, Juliet agrees to the plan.
ACT IV, SCENE II
Meanwhile, the Capulets are at home making plans for the wedding. Even though Lord Capulet told Paris it would have to be a small affair, he has the servants bustling, and twenty cooks are on the way.
When Juliet returns, she falls at her father's feet to beg his forgiveness. Does she play her part well, or does she overact? In either case, her father makes another snap decision. He moves the wedding closer by one day, to the very next morning.
Time is really becoming an enemy to the lovers. There isn't time now for Romeo to receive the Friar's second message.
Surprisingly, Lady Capulet objects to this decision. Her emotional plea makes us wonder if she doesn't remember her own fears and sadness about marriage. Her excuse is if the wedding is moved forward they'll be short of food. But her husband isn't convinced. Lady Capulet and the Nurse go to help Juliet pack and prepare for her wedding. Lord Capulet decides to go and tell Paris himself. Now that Juliet has agreed to the wedding, he says, "My heart is wondrous light." He cares enough about Juliet that her refusal bothered him; but he didn't care enough to listen to her objections and delay-or even alter-his plans.
ACT IV, SCENE III
The women go to Juliet's bedroom. Juliet sends the Nurse and her mother away so she can pray. Again we feel that Lady Capulet has a genuine empathy for her daughter's feelings. As soon as they've left, Juliet has second thoughts. She wants to be a child again; to call them back to comfort her, but she realizes, "My dismal scene I needs must act alone." This painful part of growing up is something all of us can relate to.
She takes out the drug, and by her speech we know how far she is from the innocent young girl she was at the beginning of the play. Then the world was full of hope and promise for her; now she dearly sees the power and threat of evil. She wonders about the consequences of taking the drug:
• what if the Friar, not wanting anyone to find out he'd married them, gave her poison?
• what if she wakes up in the tomb by herself and suffocates?
• what if she wakes up in the tomb, and she's so terrified by the bodies and the spirits that she goes crazy? She might even dash her brains out with some kinsman's bone.
• Her courage and love prevail, however, and she downs the Friar's drug.
ACT IV, SCENE IV
It's three o'clock in the morning. While Juliet lies seemingly dead in her room, the rest of the house is busy. Lord Capulet is checking on all of the food preparations. He's having a good time ordering everyone around, but the Nurse orders him to go to bed. She tells him he'll be sick in the morning if he stays up all night. Lord Capulet laughs that he's stayed up for less important things and it's never bothered him. Lady Capulet throws in that they are all aware that he used to be a ladies' man.
Capulet starts making jolly puns with the servants, and tells them that Paris is bringing the musicians. As he says that, they hear music outside, and Capulet jumps to life. Paris is coming! He tells the Nurse to run and wake Juliet.
ACT IV, SCENE V
The time has come for the bride to prepare for her wedding. The Nurse, excited and talking a mile a minute, hurries to Juliet's bedroom to awaken her. If we didn't know the truth, the Nurse's happiness might be contagious. She hasn't the slightest reservation about preparing Juliet for a bigamous marriage.
She calls the girl by many pet names to wake her up. When there's no movement from Juliet, she calls her a "slugabed," but then jokingly says it's a good idea for Juliet to get some sleep now, because Paris surely has other plans for her nights.
When there's still no movement, she opens the curtains around the bed, and discovers that Juliet is "dead."
Lady Capulet, Lord Capulet, Count Paris and Friar Lawrence rush to Juliet's room, and each mourns her in his or her own way.
Lady Capulet shows how much Juliet really meant to her:
O me, o me, my child and only life! Revive, look up, or I will die with thee! (IV, v, 19-20)
Lord Capulet mourns for himself as well as his Juliet:
Death is my son-in-law, Death is my heir; My daughter he hath wedded. I will die And leave him all. Life, living, all is Death's. (IV, v, 38-40)
Paris feels a terrible sense of loss:
Beguiled, divorced, wronged, spited, slain! Most detestable Death, by thee beguiled, By cruel, cruel thee quite overthrown. (IV, v, 55-57)
Friar Lawrence is in a difficult position. He knows she isn't dead, and that she will hopefully be returned to them. Since he can't comfort them with this, he comforts them with their religious beliefs. They should be happy for her:
For 'twas your heaven she should be advanced; And weep ye now, seeing she is advanced Above the clouds, as high as heaven itself? (IV, v, 73-75)
He shows some anger at Juliet's parents who have partly caused this trouble. The Capulets' day of joy becomes a day of mourning. Everything they had prepared for the wedding will be used instead for the funeral.
Following Juliet's tragic "death," we have a comparatively light passage. Peter, the Nurse's servant, finds the musicians who had come to play for the wedding. He asks them to play a song called "Heart's Ease" to comfort him because his heart is full of grief.
To cheer himself up, he teases the musicians with bad puns, and they answer with silly jokes. The scene is comic, but the underlying tone is tragic.
ROMEO & JULIET The entire play online
Click on the link above to navigate to web site
Take home the notes to ROMEO & JULIET and STUDY them because you will not be able to use any annotations to help you on the final exam! All that you need to bring on the day of the Final is a number 2 pencil with an eraser. I’ll supply the Scantron Form and Test Packet. The test contains True/False and Multiple Choice questions.
You will have the entire period to complete your exam. Good Luck.
1) Romeo and his friends go to the Capulet party to disrupt it.
2) In the beginning of the play Romeo is in Love with Rosaline.
3) Prince Escalus promises death to anyone disturbs the streets again.
4) Know that Benvolio tries to end the fight between the Capulets & Montagues in the beginning of the play.
5) In the beginning of the play who fights with Benvolio?
6) In the Prologue what does the Chorus explain?
7) Benvolio wants Romeo to go to the Capulet’s party to meet a new girl so that he can forget about Rosaline.
8) In the Balcony Scene, Romeo and Juliet agree to do what?
9) Romeo compares Juliet to the Sun.
10] Mercutio makes fun of Romeo because Romeo is in love.
11] At the party who tells Romeo who Juliet is?
Who tells Juliet who Romeo is?
12] Tybalt notices Romeo at the party and wants him to leave
13] Romeo and Juliet are only shown together in the darkness and are
always apart in the light. (With the exception of their daytime marriage
in the Friar’s chambers)
14] The story of Romeo & Juliet takes place in Verona Italy
15] The Chorus is a character that sings a Sonnet at the beginning of
16] The heads of the Capulet and Montague families do not join in the fight
at the beginning of the play because their wives hold them back.
17] Romeo and Juliet is a Shakespearean Tragedy
18] When we first see Romeo, he is lovesick over Rosalind.
19] Juliet is 13 years of age
20] A Shakespearean Sonnet contains all of the following:
A. A rhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef gg
B. Contains 3 “quatrains”
C. Contains 14 lines
D. Has a rhyming couplet at the end (Lines 13 & 14)
A Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? 1
B Thou art more lovely and more temperate. 2
A Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, 3
B And summers lease hath all too short a date. 4
C Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, 5
D And often is his gold completion dimmed. 6
C And every fair from fair sometime declines, 7
D By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed. 8
E But thy internal summer shall not fade. 9
F Nor lose possession in thy fair thou 'owest. 10
E Nor shall Death brag upon the wanderest in his shade, 11
F When in eternal lines to time thou growest. 12
G So long as men can breath, or eyes can see, 13
G So long lives this, and this give life to thee. 14
21]Lord Capulet wants Juliet to marry Paris
22]How does Friar Lawrence react to Romeo’s intentions to marry Juliet?
23] Friar Lawrence only helps R & J because he believes that their
marriage will bring the two families together.
24] Romeo doesn’t want to fight Tybalt because he has married
into his family.
25] Mercutio fights Tybalt because he feels that Romeo isn’t himself
and can’t fight.
26] Benvolio tells the Prince the truth about what happened at the fight
27] The Nurse confuses Juliet Making her think that Romeo is dead
28] Juliet’s first reaction to Romeo killing Tybalt is hate for Romeo.
29) Romeo feels that banishment (exile) is worse than death
30] Lord Capulet Moves Juliet’s wedding date up to help her get over her
sorrow for Tybalt’s death.
31] The bird singing while Romeo stands below Juliet’s balcony is
important because if it is a Lark that sings, then it is early morning
and Romeo must leave before it becomes light outside.
32] Juliet refuses to marry Paris when she hears that the wedding plans
have been moved up.
33] Juliet’s parents are furious at her because of her refusal to wed Paris
34] The Nurse tries to convince Juliet to marry Paris.
35] After hearing the Nurse’s advice, Juliet no longer considers her as a friend.
36] The Friar decides to help Juliet and tells her not to forget about
Romeo because he has devised a plan so that the two of them can be together.
37] Juliet fears that after taking the sleeping potion that she will wake up too soon.
38] The Nurse discovers Juliet's body still and lifeless on her bed
39] Romeo thinks Juliet is dead because Balthasar tells him so
40] Apothecary sells Romeo the poison because he needs the money.
41] Friar Laurence gives Friar John a letter for Romeo, but when Friar John arrives in Mantua and goes to a convent of his brotherhood to get a companion, he is not allowed to leave because a brother of the order had recently died of the plague. He can’t leave the city because it is quarantined. Friar John, who doesn't know what is in the letter, is worried, but thinks he can deliver the letter the next day, which is of course too late. Romeo never gets the message and Balthasar tells him of Juliet’s death. (Remember, Juliet isn’t really dead just sleeping but Romeo doesn’t know this. This is a great example of Dramatic Irony where the audience knows something that the characters don’t.
42] Paris wants some time to grieve Juliet's death and wants to put flowers on the tomb
43} When the Friar arrives at the Tomb he tries to convince Juliet to leave with him. Later she stabs herself. Lady Montague dies from grief over Romeo’s banishment.
44) The Friar goes before the Prince and explains the whole story from beginning to end. Balthasar confirms the story and presents Romeo's letter to the Prince. The Prince finds Romeo's letter to confirm the Friar's words, and he speaks harshly to the Montagues and Capulets. Because of their hatred toward each other, they have sacrificed their most beloved. The Prince forgives the Friar because he is a holy man. The two families realize their wrong-doings, and join hands as they grieve. They make gold statues in honor of their children. The Prince concludes the story by commenting on how high a price has been paid for peace in Verona.
Know each of the characters listed below.
The Characters Members of the Capulet family: Members of the Montague family: Capulet -- head of the household;
Montague -- head of the household;
Lady Capulet -- his wife;
Lady Montague -- his wife;
Juliet -- their daughter; 13;
Romeo -- Son to Montague. Hopeless Romantic. Dreamer
Tybalt -- Juliet's teenage cousin; Nephew to Capulet & Hates Peace.
Benvolio -- Nephew to Montague, friend to Romeo. Keeps the peace.
Sampson -- a servant;
Abram -- a servant;
Gregory -- a servant;
Balthasar -- a servant; Romeo's own servant;
Nurse -- Juliet's friend, and confidante; assigned to raise Juliet;
Friar Laurence -- Romeo's friend, and confidante; (not actually a member of the family);
Others Prince Escalus -- the Prince of the city of Verona;
Mercutio -- Romeo's friend, and a nephew to the Prince; Humorous Character
Paris -- a gentleman who wants to marry Juliet. also a nephew to the Prince;
Rosalind: Romeo’s first love
An Apothecary; Sells Romeo poison.
Friar John; fails to give Romeo a very important letter
Shakespeare: Wrote 37 plays 400 years ago and many Sonnets
Shakespeare: born and died on the same day of the month, April 23
Shakespeare: Many of his plays were put on in the Globe Theater, which is still
standing today. Plays were mainly performed at night, women couldn’t
be in the plays. His plays were made for the eyes and not the ears, so it
wasn’t uncommon for the audience to be noisy and comment out loud
about the play’s actions. Some critics believe that Shakespeare did not
write all of his plays.
Six characters die during the play. Five of these die on stage. Note also: Some may have died in the fight scene in Act I, Scene 1; Mercutio -- Mercutio is stabbed by Tybalt, in a public square in Verona. Tybalt (Prince of Cats) -- Tybalt is stabbed by Romeo, in a public square in Verona.
Paris -- Paris is stabbed by Romeo, in front of the Capulet's tomb, at night.
Lady Montague -- "Grief" over her son's banishment "stopped up her breath."
Romeo -- Romeo drinks a poison, in the Capulet's tomb.
Juliet -- Juliet stabs herself, in the Capulet's tomb.
Understanding the Five Types of Love
A) Unrequited love: Romeo for Rosaline, Paris for Juliet
B) Romantic love: Romeo and Juliet
C) Parental love: The Capulet for Juliet, The Montague for Romeo, Nurse for Juliet
D) Friendship: Romeo & Benvolio, Romeo & Mercutio, Romeo & Friar, Nurse & Juliet
E) love of family honor: Tybalt, Mercutio, Romeo
Know the following Literary Terms
Pun- A play on words. Mercutio says…. ask for me to-morrow, and you shall find me a grave man(The word has a double meaning. Grave meaning, important and Grave taken literally means that tomorrow Mercution will be dead and in the Grave.
Personification - A figure of speech that gives human qualities to abstract ideas, animals, and inanimate objects. Shakespeare used personification in Romeo and Juliet in the lines "Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,/ Who is already sick and pale with grief." Here, the moon is portrayed as being envious, sick, and pale with grief — all markedly human qualities.
Aside- when a character is on stage with other characters and speaks to
one without the others hearing
Foil - A character in a work of literature whose physical or psychological qualities contrast strongly with, and therefore highlight, the corresponding qualities of another character. In R & J, Shakespeare portrayed Romeo as a hopeless romantic, making him a foil for the wonderfully witty scoundrel Mercutio.
Dramatic Irony-when the audience knows something that the characters don’t
Romeo never gets the message and Balthasar tells him of Juliet’s death. We the audience know Juliet is only sleeping, but Romeo thinks that she is dead.
Verbal Irony - the effect of language in which the intended meaning is the opposite of what is stated. "saying one thing and meaning another." contrast between what is said and what is actually meant The title of Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal" is ironic because what Swift proposes in this essay is cannibalism which is hardly modest (humble) behavior.
Oxymoron- A phrase combining two contradictory terms. O heavy lightness! serious vanity! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health!
Allusion - a passing reference to a historical or literary figure or in art, music,etc
"Titan's fiery wheels" is an allusion to the sun chariot from mythology.
Exposition- the introduction of a play where important background info. is told
Rising Action - The part of a drama where the plot becomes increasingly complicated. Rising action leads up to the climax, or turning point, of a drama.
The final "chase scene" of an action film is generally the rising action, which culminates in the film's climax.
Turning Point – TheClimax, the high point in the plot. Tybalt is slain by Romeo Resolution- the outcome of the story - the ending
Soliloquy- when a character is expressing his thoughts alone on stage Sonnet- a 14-lined poem
Simile - comparing two or more things using "like" or "as"
clear as frost on the grass-bade
Metaphor- comparing 2 or more unlike things.
There are the black clouds of Zeus’ wrath now hanging directly over
your heads, full of the dreadful storm and big with thunder;
The comparison here is between Zeus’ anger and a storm.
Note that there is no use of "like" or "as" as would be the case
in a simile.
Act One (study guide)
ACT ONE -SCENE ONE
1. Between what two families does the feud exist?
_______________ vs. _________________
2. What decree does the Prince make after the street brawl?
3. What advice does Benvolio give Romeo about Rosaline?
ACT ONE -SCENE TWO
1. How does Capulet respond to Paris' proposal to marry Juliet?
2. How do Romeo and Benvolio learn about the Capulet's ball? What do they decide to do?
ACT ONE -SCENE THREE
1. How does Juliet feel about getting married?
2. How old is Juliet?
ACT ONE - SCENE FIVE
1. Where does this scene take place?
2. Why does Tybalt become so upset, and how does Capulet respond to his rage?
4. Who said the following line and why?
A) "My only love sprung from my only hate Too early seen unknown and known too late."
5. Find one example of each of the following literary devices used anywhere in Act One.
8. Comic Relief
Act Two (study guide)
ACT TWO - SCENE ONE:
Explain the dramatic irony in this scene.
ACT TWO - SCENE TWO:
(This is the most famous scene in the entire play.)
1. Fill in the blanks in this paraphrase of Romeo's soliloquy (lines 1-32)
Shh! What _____ is at the _____? ______ shines through the window like the ______ rises in the ______. Arise, beautiful sun (Juliet) and replace the _________ who is jealous because you, her maid (Diana - Virgin moon goddess) are ________ than she. Don't be a ________ since the moon is _________ of you. Her innocence is sickly, and only a _______ would keep it.
Oh! It's Juliet! I wish she knew that I _________ her. She speaks. but says __________. How strange. She speaks with her eyes. I'll ____________ her. No, I'd better not since she isn't _________ ____ ____.
Two of the ________ _______ in heaven have asked her _______ to twinkle for them while they take care of some __________. If her eyes were there, her ___________ would make the stars seem dull just as _________ outshines a lamp. Her eyes would shine so ________________ that the _______ would think it were _______________ and begin to __________. O' I wish that I could touch her _____________.
She speaks. 0 speak again bright ________, for you are as glorious to this ____________, being over my __________ (up at the window) as is an angel of ______________ is to _______ who look up and see him when he walks on the ___________ and sails on the ________________.
2. Explain Juliet's soliloquy (lines 33-44)
3. How is this an example of dramatic irony?
4. Fill in the blanks in this paraphrase of Juliet's speech (lines 35-106)
You know it is ________ or you could see me __________ because you __________ me talking about you. If I followed proper etiquette, I'd _______ I ever said it. But who cares about etiquette! Do you ________ me? Don't say yes unless you really ________ it. If you think that I am too ___________. 1'll play _______ ____ _____ so you can _______ my affections. The truth is I am foolishly in ______ with you, and you might not take me ___________. But _________ me, and I'll _________ myself to be more _______ than those who know how to play hard to ________. I would have been more __________ I must confess, but since you allude _________ me confess my __________ for you, there is no ___________ to be.
5. After Romeo and Juliet vow their love for one another, what do they decide to do and when?
ACT TWO - SCENE THREE
This scene opens with Friar Laurence collecting herbs. He is discussing the properties of the herbs and the purposes for which they may be used. This demonstrates Friar Laurence's knowledge of herbs and foreshadows that this knowledge may serve some purpose in future events in the drama.
The sky turns _________ as the _______ gives way to ________. Streaks of __________ speckle the Eastern ______ as the ______ rises in its normal course. Now, before the ______ rises fully and ______ the dew, I must fill this ____________ with _____ and ______. The earth is both the place of ______ and _______ for all of _________. We find all kinds of ______ growing from the earth; Some are ______ and some ______, but all are ____________. Plants and ______ and ______ have great ___________. There is nothing on earth so _______ that it does not have some _______ qualities, and nothing so ________ that it cannot be used for ________. Even goodness itself turns to vice when __________, and _______ put to good use may appear worthy. Within this _________ ______ lies _________ as well as ___________; for it has a very pleasing _______, but if you _______ it, it will __________ you. It is the same with _______. He is part ________ and part _______, and when the bad side of his nature is ______________ than the good, he'll sooner or later __________ himself.
2. Why does Romeo go to see Friar Laurence?
3. How does Friar Laurence respond to Romeo's request?
4. Why does Friar Laurence consent to Romeo's request?
ACT TWO - SCENE FOUR
This scene serves as a contrast to the preceding scene in Friar Laurence's cell. Mercutio and Benvolio are in a merry mood as they walk along talking and laughing about Romeo whom they think is still pining away over Rosaline. Benvolio mentions that Tybalt has sent a challenge to Romeo. Mercutio then gives a long description of Tybalt's eagerness to fight. Romeo comes along in a good mood after his talk with Friar Laurence. They engage in a series of puns matching their wits against each other. Along comes Juliet's nurse and Peter (her servant).
1. For whom is the nurse looking and why?
2. What warning does she give Romeo?
ACT TWO - SCENE FIVE
Juliet is waiting very impatiently for the nurse's return. Why does she become so irritated when the nurse does return?
ACT TWO - SCENE SIX
Romeo and Juliet are married in Friar Laurence's cell. How does this scene foreshadow future events?
General - Find one example in Act Two of each of the following literary devices:
6. Dramatic Irony
Act Three (study guide)
ACT THREE - SCENE ONE
(This scene marks the climax of the drama.)
1. Tybalt, still enraged at Romeo's intrusion at the Capulet's ball, is determined to fight, but Romeo refuses. Why?
2. How does Mercutio get involved, and what happens to him?
3. How does Romeo react to this?
4. What decree does the Prince make?
5. Explain how this scene serves as the climax or turning point of the drama. (Think of all that has happened between Romeo and Juliet so far.)
ACT THREE - SCENE TWO
1. Complete this paraphrase of Juliet's soliloquy (lines 1-31)
Hurry up, _______ and set so that night will come and _____________ can leap into my ________ Lovers don't need _____________ to make love. If __________ is blind it best agrees with _____________. Come on, night, so I can learn to _________ the love game. I'll _________ to Romeo, and we'll both lose our ______________. Cover my blushing ____________ until I grow __________ enough to act out my true __________. Come night. Come _____________, and lie with me this night. Give me my ________ and when he ___________ cut him up into little ___________, and he will light the ________ so fine that all the _________ will be on love with ____________ and not ______. Oh, I have taken the _______________ vow, yet I am still a virgin. it's like a child who has new _______, but is not allowed to __________ them.
2. Explain the dramatic irony in the beginning of this scene.
3. How does Juliet react to the nurse's news?
4. How does the nurse console her?
ACT THREE - SCENE THREE
1. How does Romeo react to the news of his banishment?
2. Complete this paraphrase of Friar Laurence's speech (lines 108-154).
Stop! - Are you a ______? You look like a man but you cry like a ___________ and act like a ___________. I'm surprised at you! I thought you were a better man than that. You already killed _____________. Will you now kill _____________ and by doing so kill __________ who loves you? What are you _____________ about? You're alive aren't you? ________ on you! You are a _________ to your manhood, trying to _________ yourself after vowing to love and _________ Juliet. Your ________ that should guide your body and your love is ________ like a _______ soldier trying to load his _______ and kills himself instead of the enemy. What's wrong with you ________? __________ is alive. There, you are lucky. ________ would have _______ you but instead you killed him. There, you are lucky. The Prince could have ________ you to ______, but he only _________ you. There, you are lucky. You have much to be ___________ for, but instead of counting your _________, you sulk and ________ like a spoiled child. Stop sulking, and go to your __________ and ____________ her. But don't __________ too long, or you won't be able to get pass the __________ to go to _________ where you can stay until I can tell your __________ about your ___________, reconcile them, and get the _________ to _________ you so you can come back and live happily. Go, __________ and tell ________ to go to bed early because ______ is coming.
ACT THREE - SCENE FOUR
1. How does the action in this scene complicate matters even further?
2. How does Capulet's attitude now differ from his attitude when Paris first came to ask for Juliet's hand in marriage?
3. Explain the dramatic irony in this scene.
ACT THREE - SCENE FIVE
Day breaks, and the two lovers must part after consummating their wedding vows. Juliet is very reluctant to have Romeo leave her and does not want to admit that it is morning. Finally Romeo leaves and Juliet's mother comes to her chamber. Their conversation about Tybalt's death has Juliet speaking in ambiguous terms.
1. How does Capulet react to Juliet's refusal to marry Paris?
2. What advise does the nurse give Juliet?
2. What does Juliet decide to do?
3. Find one example in act three of each of the following literary devices:
Act Four (study guide)
ACT FOUR - SCENE ONE
Juliet is no longer the obedient child. The events of the past few days have caused her to mature. With no hope of help from her mother or the nurse she is now taking matters into her own hands. She gives the excuse that since she has displeased her father, she is going to Friar Laurence to confess her sin and be absolved. (Notice how she deals with Paris at the opening of this scene.) Once Paris is gone Juliet pleads with Friar Laurence to help her out of her predicament.
ACT FOUR - SCENE TWO
1. Juliet is so convincing in her deception that her father decides to move the wedding day up from Thursday to Wednesday. What Complication does this change foreshadow?
ACT FOUR - SCENE THREE
1. Complete this paraphrase of Juliet's soliloquy (lines 14-58)
Farewell! God knows when we shall ________ again. Oh, I'm so ___________ that my _________ runs cold. I'll call them back to ____________ me. Nurse! - But what can she do? I must do this alone. Come vial. But what if the potion doesn't _________ and I have to ___________ Paris after all? I'll use this ________ on myself first! What if the Friar gave me ____________ to kill me so that no one will find out that he already ____________ me to Romeo? No, the Friar is proven to be a _________ man. He would not do that. But what if I ________ ____ before ________ comes to take me away? That's scary. Will I not ________ in the vault before ________ comes? Or if I ________, my imagination will run ________ in that horrible place where the bones of my _____________ have been ________ for hundreds of years; where _________ yet recently burned lies ___________ in his shroud; where __________ visit at some hours of the _________. Oh! Wouldn't those horrible _________ and ______ drive a living person __________? If I __________ will I not be so disturbed in the midst of these hideous __________ that I play with my forefather's _________ or pull ___________ burial clothes off, and then in a fit of madness dash out my __________ with my _________ _______?
Oh look! I think I see my cousin's (Tybalt's) _________ looking for __________ who cut him up with his __________. Stay back, ____________ stay back! Romeo, I come! I __________ this (potion) to you.
2. List Juliet's fears as she is about to drink the potion.
ACT FOUR - SCENE FOUR
The Capulets are busy preparing for Juliet's wedding. The Nurse is told to wake Juliet up and get her ready.
ACT FOUR - SCENE FIVE
The nurse discovers Juliet's apparently lifeless body, and the happy day for the Capulets becomes a day of sorrow.
Act Five (study guide)
ACT FIVE - SCENE ONE
1. How does Romeo's dream, which he describes in his opening speech, compare with the news brought to him by Balthasar?
2. How does Romeo convince the apothecary to sell him poison?
3. What does he plan to do with the poison?
ACT FIVE - SCENE TWO
1. Explain the conversation between Friar Laurence and Friar John.
2. What does Friar Laurence now plan to do?
ACT FIVE - SCENE THREE
1. Why does Paris come to Juliet's burial place?
2. What happens when Romeo and Paris meet?
3. Romeo enters the tomb and sees Juliet. He takes the poison, and no sooner does Romeo die, than Friar Laurence comes along - but too late.
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN JULIET WAKES UP?
4. Complete this paraphrase of Friar Laurence's speech.
I will be _________, for I don't expect to ________ long. Romeo and Juliet are ___________ and __________. I ____________ them in ________, and that same day was _____________ killed and _____________ banished. Juliet pined for her bridegroom and not for _________. You (Capulet) while trying to make her _________ promised her to _______ and would have ________ her to marry him. Then she came to me asking that I ___________ ___________ ___________ to prevent her second marriage, or she would have __________ herself right there in my cell. So I gave her a _________ ________ which was intended to make her ___________ _________. Meanwhile, I wrote a letter to _________ telling him to come __________ to take _________ from her borrowed grave when the potion __________ _____. But Friar John, who was sent to _______ the ________, was detained and brought the letter back to me. So I came alone at the time when Juliet was to __________ _____ to take her from the vault and hide her in ______ ________ until I could send another ___________ to ___________. When I got here, just a few minutes before _________ should awaken, I found both ________ and ___________ dead. Juliet woke up, and I tried to get her to leave. I heard some __________ and was ___________ away, but Juliet would not _______ _______ _____. It seems that she _________ __________. This is the whole story, and Juliet's _________ also knew of the _____________. If this is all my _________ let me be sacrificed to the full extent of the ______.